Skip to content
3 Types of Argumentative Essays: Claims, Outline, and Example

3 Types of Argumentative Essays: Claims, Outline, and Example

What types of argumentative essays do you create in school and college?

This assignment is among the most common ones for students. To make it A-worthy, it would help to know different types of claims and arguments. The structure of your paper depends on these factors by far.

In this post, I’ll reveal these elements for you to master the art of argumentative writing. An outline template and an essay example are also here.

Ready? Let’s dive right in!

What is Argumentative Writing?

Academic writing is a content piece aimed to demonstrate the author’s point on the issue or topic via evidence from reliable and credible resources.

In academia, we know it as essays. According to the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University [1],

An argumentative essay is a paper that “requires the student to investigate a topic, collect and evaluate evidence, and establish a position on it.”

Students write it on topics related to science, politics, or technology. It’s critical to understand the tiny differences between argumentative and persuasive papers to craft both types like a pro.

Argumentative vs. Persuasive

Argumentative essayPersuasive essay
Goal:Show a reader that your point deserves considerationGet a reader to agree with your point of view
Technique:Offer reasons, facts, and evidence to support your pointBlend evidence and emotions to convince a reader that you’re right
Attitude:Get a reader to consider your point is worth listening toGet another “vote” for your claim from a reader

 For your essay to become argumentative, it should include:

  1. A definite thesis statement
  2. Several points of discussion to support with the evidence 
  3. A conclusion with a call to action for readers to leave them with food for thought

To structure your argumentative paper, decide on the claim you’ll address. After that, choose the type of an argumentative essay you’ll use to communicate your points.

What Are Different Types of Claims in Writing?

Now you have the topic and thesis to discuss. It’s time to think about how you’ll present points.

Six ways to do that exist [2], and you can choose the types of claims you’ll use:

  1. Fact: Is the statement true or false?
  2. Definition: What is the explanation of what you’re arguing, and how do you interpret it?
  3. Value: How important is what you’re arguing? Is it good or bad? Who thinks so?
  4. Cause: What’s the reason for the problem, and what is the effect?
  5. Comparison: What can we learn by comparing the subject to another?
  6. Policy: Why should the reader care, and what should they do after reading? How can we solve the problem?

Which statement is an example of an effective claim for an argumentative essay?

The most common are definition and value, so please focus on definition argument examples.

3 Types of Argumentative Essays

Once you decide on a thesis and types of claims, choose a structure.

Three main types of argumentative essays are:

1. Classic (Aristotelian) Type

This one will fit if you make straightforward arguments in your writing, using a simple five-paragraph structure for your essay. It’s the most popular strategy to structure your paper:

Classic type of argumentative essay structure

Present your argument, explain it, provide a counterargument your opponents may have, and provide the evidence to support your point of view.

Based on: credibility, emotion, reasoning (ethos, pathos, logos)

2. Toulmin Structure

This one is perfect for presenting complex issues with no ultimate truth or straightforward answers. Use it when your thesis is a counterargument to a commonly-accepted statement or when you want to unravel a complicated problem.

Toulmin essay format

Present your argument, give evidence, explain the connection between them, provide additional evidence, and address the opposing opinion and criticism of your claim.

Based on: logic, deep analysis

3. Rogerian Model

This one will fit if you want to show both sides of an argument, not just prove the credibility of yours.

Rogerian model of sttucturing your college paper

Here you’ll introduce the problem, explain the opposing perspective first, provide evidence if applicable, then present your claim, and bring both sides together, suggesting a compromise (a balanced argument).

Based on: a comparative analysis

Argumentative Essay Outline

Now that you have decided on the topic, thesis, claims, and model for representing your arguments, it’s time to outline your future paper so that it has a clear format and you won’t miss anything while writing a draft.

A typical argumentative essay consists of these elements:

  1.  Introduction 
  2.  2-3 body paragraphs with evidence to support your argument 
  3.  A paragraph with counterarguments 
  4.  Conclusion 

The number of arguments and counterarguments in your essay may vary, so feel free to format your outline accordingly.

A template you can use when outlining your argumentative paper

The whole process of writing an argumentative paper consists of four parts everyone who works with texts knows:

First, you brainstorm a topic and an argumentative thesis for your paper, choosing the “side” you will prove with the evidence.

How to write a thesis for argumentative essays?
In argumentative essays, a thesis equals a claim plus a reason. With that in mind, you can try three methods of stating it:

1. Turn your claim into a question and then format it as an answer.
2. State your claim as a counterargument to your point of view — and then refute it.
3. Outline your claim briefly.

After that, you prepare everything for writing a draft: collect the evidence, choose the claims you’ll use, decide on the types of arguments in essays, and craft the outline accordingly.

What to use as evidence in argumentative essays? [3]
The evidence will vary depending on your niche, field of study, and topic. You can use scholarly articles and journals, statistics, literary texts, first-hand research, or primary sources like diaries, newspapers, or official documents. Just ensure they are still relevant and credible enough to consider: use up-to-point information to support the claims in your papers.

Now, it’s time to write an argumentative essay. Follow the outline, include the data and other evidence to support your arguments, follow the “one argument = one paragraph” rule, and keep each paragraph short (4-5 sentences long) and clear.

Every paragraph of your argumentative paper should have a clear structure: present your point, elaborate on it, provide the evidence to support it, and link back to the point to show how it relates to the issue or how it leads to the next argument you’ll discuss. Writers know this structure as PEEL:

Try the PEEL model when structuring your paragraphs

Finally, self-edit the draft: optimize word choice, ensure all the arguments are straightforward and relevant, check the conclusion, and proofread the essay to avoid typos and grammar mistakes.

Example of an Argumentative Essay Type

Below is an example of an argumentative essay for you to get an idea of how to write it. Please note that this sample is for demonstrative and informative purposes only. Do not copy or submit it for a teacher’s review to prevent the academic integrity violation.

I used the classic (Aristotelian) type of argumentative essay for it.

Argumentative essay example: Classic type

What Types of Argumentative Essays Do You Write?

Here they go, three types of argumentative essays to write in school and college. While Classic is the most common type, don’t miss a chance to surprise a teacher and get extra points: Try Toulmin or Rogerian structure when writing your next work.

The key is to decide on the thesis statement and the types of claims you will use. My sample of an essay outline and the ready-made paper example will help you do the rest.

What is your favorite type of argumentative essay? Let’s share our thoughts in the comments!



3 thoughts on “3 Types of Argumentative Essays: Claims, Outline, and Example”

  1. Deciding the topic (problem) to be written must be quite important to note, so that when you encounter difficulties while writing you can still get a solution to continue the topic.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *